PFAS-coated clothes that are thrown away will often end up either incinerated or in landfill. Unless incinerated at very high temperatures (>1000oC), fluorinated polymers could release more harmful PFAS during burning. PFAS of environmental concern have also been found in landfill leachate. PFAS is found in treated waste water from industrial and domestic sources and has been found in both rivers and groundwater. Conventional drinking water processes will not remove PFAS.Small quantities of PFAS will be removed during wash and wear of products containing PFAS. This includes fluorinated polymers used on stain-resistant coatings, and non-polymers that remain on clothes after production (Lassen et al. 2015).Non-polymer PFAS can build up in blood protein of animals, and is not always removed quickly. This means that predators eating PFAS-contaminated food will have higher levels in their bloodstream, and concentrations can increase up the food chain. Studies suggest that build up of PFAS is similar to those of other Persistent Organic Pollutants such as DDT.PFAS are estimated to be settling in arctic regions at rates of tens to hundreds of kilograms per year (25-850kg per year), depending on the specific PFAS chemical in question. Certain PFAS are released as gases to the environment and are blown a long way by wind and air currents in the atmosphere,. These gas PFAS will over time degrade to more persistent chemicals like PFOS and PFOA. This may be one reason why PFAS of environmental concern have been found in remote regions such as the Arctic as well as near PFAS production sitesPFAS including PFOS and PFOA have been found in air samples around Europe. The chemicals are found in small quantities, but appear in almost all samples tested. PFAS enters the atmosphere both from factories and the air inside our homes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17554424 Non-polymer PFAS are used in the production of fluorinated polymers. The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes generally releases these PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. They are very hard to remove during water treatment. Workers in textiles factories are some of the population most exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals.

Bisphenol use in thermal paper:
Why we need to 'stick it to the ticket'

Bisphenols on our receipts

  • Bisphenols are industrial chemicals used in receipts and tickets

  • There is increasing evidence that bisphenols are harming the environment and could be impacting human health by affecting our hormones

  • The application of bisphenol A (BPA) on receipts was banned by the EU in January 2020, but some retailers are switching to other, similar bisphenols like BPS, which are also of concern

  • Some retailers have already phased out all bisphenols from their receipts, with some ditching paper entirely by introducing digital options

What are bisphenols?

Bisphenols are a group of synthetic chemicals used to make some plastics, and thermal paper for tickets and receipts. Bisphenol A (BPA) is the most studied bisphenol and one of the highest produced chemicals, manufactured at a rate of around 2.7 million tonnes each year. Evidence suggest that BPA disrupts endocrine (hormonal) systems in both humans and animal species [1] and is found in the blood and urine of almost every person who has been tested [2].

Whilst some bisphenols have not been studied as closely as BPA, all bisphenols have a similar chemical structure and composition, and therefore have similar effects on humans and animals.

One way that these chemicals enter our bodies is through our skin when touching receipts and tickets. Bisphenols can also be released into the environment through landfill leachate, paper mill effluent and the breakdown of products that contain these chemicals, such as receipts.

What can businesses do?

  • Offer a no receipt option 

As many receipts and tickets are immediately thrown away, some retailers ask customers if they would like a receipt rather than automatically printing one. Check to see if your point of sale has had automatic printing switched off.

  • ‘Go digital’ 

Many retailers are introducing digital receipting which is both effective and will reduce long-term environmental costs of receipt rolls of paper and printing.

  • Choose a safer alternative

Retailers have an important role in reducing the exposure levels of bisphenols to their staff, customers and wider environment. Bisphenol free coatings for thermal paper tickets and receipts are readily available.

What’s the problem?

It is clear from the academic, scientific research that bisphenols can have a negative impact on human and environmental health and need to be monitored, regulated and banned where the use is unnecessary and harmful. Balabanič et al. (2017) [3] go as far as claiming that “endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are one of the most critical class of contaminants since they can cause adverse effects in the living organisms due to their interference with the endocrine system.” As a result, many academics and NGOs, Fidra included, would like to see greater action in regard to the regulation and use of bisphenols as a group, not just on one bisphenol chemical, such as BPA, alone.

Health impacts

Research like that completed by Balabanič et al. (2017) [4] on the impacts of endocrine (hormone) disruptors on biological processes, highlight the damage that can be caused to human fertility, formation of genitals and hormone related cancers. Valentino et al. (2015) [5] express that exposure to BPA via tin cans, plastic packaging and till receipts and tickets “must be reduced” due to the results that they found on human health, especially in regard to foetal and neonatal exposure.

Environmental impacts

CHEM Trust’s report, ‘From BPA to BPZ: a toxic soup?‘ explains that BPA is ubiquitous throughout our natural environment, having a wide variety of different impacts on wildlife. This includes disruption to the development of Zebrafish larvae and amphibians as well as altering the sex and reproductive systems of various fish species [6].

In addition, a recent study from Guo et al. (2017) shows that BPA has been found to build up in green algae. This is known as ‘bioaccumulation’ as the chemical is absorbed by an organism quicker than it can be processes. This study also demonstrated that bisphenol was transferred from contaminated alga to plankton that eat it, therefore suggesting that it is possible for bisphenols to build up in the food chain [7]; which we are of course a part of. 

What can you do?

  • Say ‘No, thank you!’

If you don’t need a receipt please say so! Retailers will soon get the message…

  • Keep your receipts safe

If you need a receipt for expenses or proof of purchase, that is OK!  Keep your tickets and receipts in an envelope to limit the contact with skin.

  • Bin them

We know this might not be what you expect from an environmental charity, but we do not recommend receipts are recycled. This will prevent bisphenols being introduced into our recycled paper products such as loo roll or printing paper.

What’s the solution?

Fidra have been working with the UK’s major retailers to find out what’s on their receipts, encouraging them to limit the environmental impact of their receipts, through turning off automatic receipts, going digital and switching to bisphenol free paper. We want to see all retailers choosing bisphenol free options, rather than substituting BPA for another bisphenol, like BPS.

This is one way Fidra believes we can make a difference. Another way is to focus on the legislative process, working with partner organisations to bring our concerns to both the Scottish and UK governments, as well as the EU.

Dr Anna Watson, Head of Advocacy at CHEM Trust said:

“BPA is well known to have endocrine disrupting properties, and it is worrying that a number of the other bisphenols are also being found to have similar hazardous properties. We need the regulators to phase out groups of chemicals of concern, such as the bisphenols, rather than slowly restricting one chemical at a time, which allows companies to move from one harmful chemical to another. We fully support Fidra’s campaign calling on the industry to end the use of bisphenols in till receipts to protect people and the environment from these hazardous chemicals.”

Have a look at our table to find out what your supermarket is doing:

As UK supermarket Co-op demonstrates, by using digital receipts, bisphenol free paper and no receipting options is an important part of being a responsible business. Iain Ferguson, Environment Manager Co-op, said: “We believe how we do business really matters, from our work to cut carbon, source sustainably and eradicate hard to recycle plastic, through to bisphenol and phenol-free till receipts – we are committed to ensuring we have a healthy, sustainable natural environment to pass on to future generations.”

Retailer
  • Aldi

    Aldi

  • Asda

    Asda

  • B&Q

    B&Q

  • Boots

    Boots

  • Coop

    Coop

  • Iceland

    Iceland

  • Lidl

    Lidl

  • Marks & Spencer

    Marks & Spencer

  • Morrisons

    Morrisons

  • Sainsbury’s

    Sainsbury’s

  • Screwfix

    Screwfix

  • Tesco

    Tesco

  • Waitrose

    Waitrose

  • Other Retailers

    Other Retailers

  • H&M

    H&M

  • Ikea UK

    Ikea UK

  • JoJo Maman Bébé

    JoJo Maman Bébé

  • Mamas & Papas

    Mamas & Papas

  • Mothercare Ltd.

    Mothercare Ltd.

  • Takeaways

    Takeaways

  • Costa Coffee

    Costa Coffee

  • Domino's Pizza

    Domino's Pizza

  • Greggs

    Greggs

  • McDonald's

    McDonald's

  • Pizza Hut

    Pizza Hut

  • Pret A Manger

    Pret A Manger

Are their receipts bisphenol free?
$20 / month
  • Aldi

    Yes

  • Asda

    No

  • B&Q

    Phasing in new bisphenol-free stock

  • Boots

    Yes

  • Coop

    Yes

  • Iceland

    Yes

  • Lidl

    Yes

  • Marks & Spencer

    Phasing in new bisphenol-free stock

  • Morrisons

    No

  • Sainsbury’s

    Yes

  • Screwfix

    Yes

  • Tesco

    Yes

  • Waitrose

    Yes

  • Other Retailers

  • H&M

    Yes

  • Ikea UK

    No response

  • JoJo Maman Bébé

    No

  • Mamas & Papas

    No response

  • Mothercare Ltd.

    Phasing in new bisphenol-free stock

  • Takeaways

  • Costa Coffee

    Unknown

  • Domino's Pizza

    No response

  • Greggs

    Bisphenol-free options currently under review

  • McDonald's

    No

  • Pizza Hut

    No

  • Pret A Manger

    Unknown

Have they stopped receipts printing automatically?
$60 / month
  • Aldi

    No

  • Asda

    No

  • B&Q

    No

  • Boots

    No

  • Coop

    Yes

  • Iceland

    Yes

  • Lidl

    On some self-service checkouts

  • Marks & Spencer

    On some self-service checkouts

  • Morrisons

    Unknown

  • Sainsbury’s

    On some self-service checkouts

  • Screwfix

    No

  • Tesco

    On some self-service checkouts and petrol pumps

  • Waitrose

    Yes

  • Other Retailers

  • H&M

    No

  • Ikea UK

    No response

  • JoJo Maman Bébé

    Unknown

  • Mamas & Papas

    No response

  • Mothercare Ltd.

    Yes

  • Takeaways

  • Costa Coffee

    Unknown

  • Domino's Pizza

    No response

  • Greggs

    Yes

  • McDonald's

    No

  • Pizza Hut

    No

  • Pret A Manger

    Yes

Do they offer digital receipting?
$99 / month
  • Aldi

    No

  • Asda

    No

  • B&Q

    No

  • Boots

    Under consideration

  • Coop

    On some checkouts

  • Iceland

    Under consideration

  • Lidl

    Unknown

  • Marks & Spencer

    Under consideration

  • Morrisons

    Unknown

  • Sainsbury’s

    No

  • Screwfix

    Yes

  • Tesco

    Under consideration

  • Waitrose

    Under consideration

  • Other Retailers

  • H&M

    Digital receipts offered in selected brands and markets

  • Ikea UK

    No response

  • JoJo Maman Bébé

    Unknown

  • Mamas & Papas

    No response

  • Mothercare Ltd.

    Yes

  • Takeaways

  • Costa Coffee

    Unknown

  • Domino's Pizza

    No response

  • Greggs

    Digital receipts offered to all Greggs Rewards customers.

  • McDonald's

    No

  • Pizza Hut

    No

  • Pret A Manger

    No

Further detail
$99 / month
  • Aldi

    Aldi have confirmed that their receipts are now bisphenol-free, following the BPA ban introduced in 2020.

  • Asda

    Asda have removed BPA from their receipts in line with the new legislation and are looking into alternatives to using BPS. Asda are also exploring ways to offer a 'no receipt' option on some of their self-service checkouts.

  • B&Q

    B&Q (owned by Kingfisher) have made plans for their receipts to become bisphenol-free and are also looking into where else this might be used within their business.

  • Boots

    Boots have ordered new bisphenol-free stock and are introducing this into their stores. They are also considering options for digital receipts.

  • Coop

    Coop have committed to bisphenol-free receipts and 'no receipt' is now the default option at checkouts where contracts, e.g. National Lottery, allow it.

  • Iceland

    Iceland have confirmed that their receipts are bisphenol-free and automatic printing of receipts has been stopped, with a 'no receipt' option now being offered in all stores.

  • Lidl

    Lidl have confirmed that they removed bisphenol coatings from their receipts in 2010.

  • Marks & Spencer

    M&S are moving away from bisphenol coatings throughout the start of 2020. Printed till receipts for food purchases under £20 and on self-service checkouts will be optional for customers and digital receipting is under consideration.

  • Morrisons

    Morrisons’ till receipts are BPA-free but there could still be an another bisphenol used on the paper. They are currently looking to make changes.

  • Sainsbury’s

    Sainsbury’s have confirmed that their receipts are bisphenol-free as of May 2020. Some of their self-service checkouts also offer a 'no receipt' option.

  • Screwfix

    Screwfix (owned by Kingfisher) receipts are bisphenol-free and Screwfix are also looking into where else this might be used within their business.

  • Tesco

    Tesco are now only ordering bisphenol-free paper.Whilst 'no receipt' is the default setting on self-service checkouts and at petrol pumps, they are continuing to look into this option for service tills.

  • Waitrose

    Waitrose’s receipts have been free from BPA for the last two years and they have confirmed that all new till receipt rolls will now be bisphenol-free. Automatic printing of receipts stopped at the start of 2020 and digital receipting options are under consideration.

  • Other Retailers

  • H&M

    H&M Group does not allow the use of bisphenols in receipts in any of the markets they operate in and are currently using Pergafast instead. However, they are not satisfied with the environmental properties of Pergafast and are contining to look for a better substitution; they invite companies to present alternatives through the ChemSec marketplace. Digital receipts are on offer to loyalty club members.

  • Ikea UK

    No response

  • JoJo Maman Bébé

    JoJo Maman Bébé confirmed that they would be looking into changing to BPA-free receipts in the months leading up to 2020, in accordance with new legislation.

  • Mamas & Papas

    No response

  • Mothercare Ltd.

    Mothercare planned to introduce bisphenol-free receipts by Autumn 2019. Customers are given the option of having a paper receipt printed or a digital version sent to them.

  • Takeaways

  • Costa Coffee

    Costa Coffee confirmed in November 2019 that they would investigate this matter internally. We are yet to receive an update.

  • Domino's Pizza

    No response

  • Greggs

    Greggs receipts are BPA-free but do contain BPS. Bisphenol-free options are currently under review. Digital receipts are offered to all Greggs Rewards customers.

  • McDonald's

    McDonalds’ till rolls and thermal labels are BPA-free but they do contain BPS. Through ongoing engagement with their suppliers, they are transitioning all thermal paper to phenol-free and plan to achieve this by June 2020 across the UK and Ireland.

  • Pizza Hut

    Pizza Hut’s supplier has replaced BPA with BPS. They are in conversation with them about bisphenol-free options and will consider alternatives.

  • Pret A Manger

    Pret A Manger confirmed that their receipts do not contain BPA and are in discussion with their supplier about phenol-free options following the recent additional ban of BPS from use in receipts in Switzerland. Pret A Manger have also turned off automatic printing.

Regulating bisphenols

 

The growing concerns about the effects of bisphenols has led to increased regulation of some bisphenols, as well as bans on certain applications of these chemcials. This is most significant for BPA  which has been banned in various products in countries such as Canada, France and China. The EU have also banned BPA in baby products and till receipts, with this latter ban recently being introduced in January 2020 [8].

Currently, our regulatory system addresses every chemical individually. So for example, BPA will be researched and regulated separately to BPS, rather than bisphenols being examined and regulated as a group.
This process allows companies to easily switch from one chemical to another when one is banned. This is called ‘regrettable substitution‘ and we have seen this happen as companies decide to replace BPA for BPS on our receipts given the recent ban. BPS and flourine-9- bisphenol (BHPF) have been shown to have similar properties to BPA, which may lead to bans on BPS in the future, but not just yet. By phasing out all bisphenols, businesses and organisations will be able to stay ahead of legislation and avoid cases of regrettable substitution.

At Fidra, we want to see group-based legislation on chemicals so that the whole group, in this case bisphenols, is banned rather than only certain types. Evidence demonstrates that other bisphenols, such as BPS and BPF, which are often used as an alternative where BPA is banned, have very similar properties and impacts to BPA.

References

 

[1] ‘From BPA to BPZ: a toxic soup?’, CHEM Trust, 2018

[2] Mendum, T., Stoler, E., VanBenschoten, H. and Warner, J.C., 2011. Concentration of bisphenol A in thermal paper. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews4(1), pp.81-86.

[3] Balabanič, D., Filipič, M., Klemenčič, A.K. and Žegura, B., 2017. Raw and biologically treated paper mill wastewater effluents and the recipient surface waters: Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity and the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds. Science of the Total Environment574, pp.78-89. 

[4] Balabanič, D., Filipič, M., Klemenčič, A.K. and Žegura, B., 2017. Raw and biologically treated paper mill wastewater effluents and the recipient surface waters: Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity and the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds. Science of the Total Environment574, pp.78-89. 

[5] Valentino, R., D’Esposito, V., Ariemma, F., Cimmino, I., Beguinot, F. and Formisano, P., 2016. Bisphenol A environmental exposure and the detrimental effects on human metabolic health: is it necessary to revise the risk assessment in vulnerable population?. Journal of endocrinological investigation39(3), pp.259-263.

[6] Wu L-H et al, 2018 Occurrence of bisphenol S in the environment and implications for human exposure: A short review. Sci Total Environ.615  87-98.

[7] Guo, R., Du, Y., Zheng, F., Wang, J., Wang, Z., Ji, R. and Chen, J., 2017. Bioaccumulation and elimination of bisphenol a (BPA) in the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the potential for trophic transfer to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Environmental Pollution227, pp.460-467.

[8] ‘From BPA to BPZ: a toxic soup?’, CHEM Trust, 2018