PFAS-coated clothes that are thrown away will often end up either incinerated or in landfill. Unless incinerated at very high temperatures (>1000oC), fluorinated polymers could release more harmful PFAS during burning. PFAS of environmental concern have also been found in landfill leachate. PFAS is found in treated waste water from industrial and domestic sources and has been found in both rivers and groundwater. Conventional drinking water processes will not remove PFAS.Small quantities of PFAS will be removed during wash and wear of products containing PFAS. This includes fluorinated polymers used on stain-resistant coatings, and non-polymers that remain on clothes after production (Lassen et al. 2015).Non-polymer PFAS can build up in blood protein of animals, and is not always removed quickly. This means that predators eating PFAS-contaminated food will have higher levels in their bloodstream, and concentrations can increase up the food chain. Studies suggest that build up of PFAS is similar to those of other Persistent Organic Pollutants such as DDT.PFAS are estimated to be settling in arctic regions at rates of tens to hundreds of kilograms per year (25-850kg per year), depending on the specific PFAS chemical in question. Certain PFAS are released as gases to the environment and are blown a long way by wind and air currents in the atmosphere,. These gas PFAS will over time degrade to more persistent chemicals like PFOS and PFOA. This may be one reason why PFAS of environmental concern have been found in remote regions such as the Arctic as well as near PFAS production sitesPFAS including PFOS and PFOA have been found in air samples around Europe. The chemicals are found in small quantities, but appear in almost all samples tested. PFAS enters the atmosphere both from factories and the air inside our homes. Non-polymer PFAS are used in the production of fluorinated polymers. The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes generally releases these PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. They are very hard to remove during water treatment. Workers in textiles factories are some of the population most exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals.
COP 26 Best Fishes - Fidra
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Best Fishes

Current environmental concerns

Fish populations are under increasing pressure from overfishing, climate change and pollution. Aquaculture has been seen as a solution to the growing need for protein to feed the human population. However, as with any intensive farming, it brings with it environmental issues around animal welfare, disease, pest control, and associated chemicals.

Fish Farms


The use of open net pens in salmon farming has significant environmental impacts, which will be affected by the rising water temperatures, increasingly severe storms and ocean acidification associated with climate change.

With aquaculture production increasing worldwide, including Scotland’s salmon farming industry, effective regulation is essential to mitigate the industry’s environmental impacts.

Currently, consumers are unable to easily find clear information about the salmon they are eating and how its production impacts the environment.


Making information on individual farms accessible on a Sustainability Dashboard will enable easy identification of poorly performing salmon farms.

Retailers labelling their salmon with the source farm will allow consumers to see the impact a salmon product has had on the environment and make informed purchasing possible.

By ensuring all data is public, transparent, and accessible in a format that is easily understood, retailers, processors and producers will be more accountable to improving the standards of the industry.


Show retailers you want them to be accountable by buying salmon from named farms, see which retailers name their sources farms on our website.

Understand how certification standards are currently used in the Scottish salmon industry.

Show industry you support transparency by buying salmon from farms which have the most data available (currently ASC farms)